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Knowledge Is Power.

LET’S TALK
ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVs)

There’s a lot of hype around electric vehicles (EVs) right now. But there are also a lot of questions about their performance, reliability and how they actually fit into your everyday life. At PSO, we want to provide you with answers to your EV questions, so you can make informed decisions. So, take an educational journey with us. It’ll be electrifying.

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THE BASICS

Sure, electric vehicles (EVs) look like typical cars from the outside, but inside, there’s a new world of automotive magic happening. Here’s how they work:

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COST OF OWNERSHIP

Like with all new technology, EVs currently start at a higher price point than gas-powered vehicles. But it’s important to take into consideration the total cost of ownership. This includes trading the pump for a plug, meaning energy costs…kWh instead of mpg…as well as maintenance/repairs and federal tax incentives.

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WHAT IS THE STARTING PURCHASE PRICE OF AN EV?

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$27,400

Starting price for a new EV.

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$20,635

Starting price for a new gas-powered car.

HOW AFFORDABLE IS OWNING AN EV?

Obviously, the upfront cost for EVs is higher than gas-powered vehicles. However, over time, they have the potential to make up that financial gap for these two reasons:

01

Fewer moving parts. Like in the diagram above, there’s far less going on under the hood. Plus, EVs don’t require oil or even spark plugs. Maintenance costs tend to be minimal and noticeably less expensive.

According to AAA, average annual cost to maintain an EV is $949.

02

Energy consumption. Electricity usage is calculated in kilowatt hours (kWh) versus gas, which is calculated in gallons. On average, kWh rates are significantly lower than price per gallon.

CALCULATE THE DIFFERENCE:

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ELECTRIC

10,920

miles driven
PER YEAR
miles
PER kWh

3,120

kWh used
PER YEAR
$
avg. cost
PER kWh

$490

yearly electric cost
$0/mile
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GAS

10,920

miles driven
PER YEAR
miles
PER GALLON

546

gallons used
PER YEAR
$
avg. cost
PER GALLON

$490

yearly gas cost
$0/mile
> SOURCE: The Hill

WHAT IS THE LONG-TERM COST OF OWNING AN EV?

A study from the U.S. Department of Energy has shown that there’s a 4-cent per-mile difference that favors EVs over gas-powered vehicles, due to lower maintenance and energy costs. While that might not sound like very much, over the course of a car’s lifespan and the miles driven, it adds up exponentially.

AVERAGE COST PER MILE

$.06
per EV

$.10
per gas

8-YEAR AVERAGE OWNERSHIP

(15,000 estimated mileage per year)

Savings:

$4,800
> SOURCE: Car and Driver

ARE THERE TAX INCENTIVES FOR PURCHASING AN EV?

The federal EV tax credit is up to

$7,500

for new vehicles. Learn more.

WILL FUEL TAX APPEAR IN A DIFFERENT FORM FOR EV BUYERS?

State and federal transportation projects rely heavily on gas taxes to fund highways, road construction and maintenance that impact us all.

FUEL TAX ACCOUNTS FOR

84%%

Federal Highway Funds

29%%

State Highway Funds

Since EV owners don’t gas up at the pump, they don’t pay fuel tax. As a result, there’s a loss of revenue that supports state and federal roadway infrastructure. So, in Oklahoma, EV owners pay an additional tax when they renew their tag to offset not paying fuel tax at the pump. Beginning in 2024, there will be a new tax applied to using certain public charging stations. This is aimed at out-of-state drivers — Oklahoma residents will be able to get this tax refunded.

> SOURCE: Consumer Reports
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Battery life/Charging

The biggest questions regarding EVs revolve around their batteries, from charging capacity to how long they last. EV battery technology is advancing rapidly, so it’s important to stay current with the latest information.

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WHAT KIND/SIZE BATTERIES ARE IN EVs?

Most, if not all, EVs use Lithium-Ion batteries.

Lithium-Ion Battery

BATTERY SIZE RANGE

small-battery

16.7kWh

to

large-battery

118kWh

The more kWh capacity, the greater the performance and mileage per charge.

> SOURCE: EV Database

HOW MANY MILES DO EV BATTERIES GO ON A SINGLE CHARGE?

Currently, the shortest range on a single charge is 58 miles (Smart EQ),

road

while the longest range can reach 431 miles (Lucid Air).

HOW OFTEN DOES AN EV NEED TO BE CHARGED?

Most EV manufacturers recommend keeping your batteries charged between 20-80%. By average driving habits, this translates into plugging in every three days or so.

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> SOURCE: GetJerry

HOW QUICKLY CAN THEY BE CHARGED?

From as quickly as 10 minutes with a Level 3 charger to almost 12 hours, EV charging times can vary greatly and depend on several factors.

CHARGER TYPE CHARGE PER HOUR VOLTAGE
Level 1 2-5 miles 120 V (AC)
Level 2 10-20 miles 240 V (AC)
DC Fast 60-80 miles 480 V (DC)

Level 1 has the slowest charge time and is typically used for at-home charging.

Level 2 is the next fastest EV charger used for at-home or public charging.

Fast Charger is used for public or fleet charging due to their size and capacity.

Here’s a look at what can impact your charging time:

YOUR BATTERY’S SIZE

Level 1 outlets (like those you use at home 120V outlet) charge car batteries at the slowest rate. If your vehicle offers more battery capacity (measured in kWh), you’ll need more time to charge your car battery fully.

IS YOUR BATTERY EMPTY OR FULL?

Drivers rarely charge their vehicles from an empty battery. They usually “top up” their batteries instead to lengthen the time they can drive on a single charge, which generally saves drivers significant charging time.

YOUR VEHICLE’S MAXIMUM CHARGING RATE

How much of a charge can your vehicle accept at once? Your vehicle’s maximum charge rate is static, so you won’t save time by charging your battery at a more powerful charging station.

THE POWER OF YOUR CHARGING STATION

Your charging time also depends on the maximum charging rate of the charging station you are using. Even if your car can charge at a higher rate, it will only charge at your charging station’s maximum power rate, which can adversely affect charging time.

THE WEATHER IN YOUR AREA

Lower temperatures can affect vehicle efficiency and lengthen charging times, especially when using rapid chargers. Conversely, hot weather can also affect your electric car’s thermal management systems, affecting its efficiency. Hot conditions can also test an electric vehicle’s internal resistance, rising as battery charges increase.

Hover to read
> SOURCE: Kelly Blue Book

DO EV BATTERIES FADE IN CAPACITY OVER TIME?

The short answer is YES.
However, they degrade at a slower rate than your cellphone battery, for example, most EV batteries will outlast the car they’re in.

Studies by Recurrent, a company that researches and tracks battery life EVs, reveal an estimated 5% decrease in range from 50,000 to about 200,000 miles. This means a 5-10% decrease in capacity in the first five years.

Another study shows they lose about 2.3% of their energy capacity each year.

> SOURCE: Motor Biscuit

WHAT IS THE COST OF REPLACING AN EV BATTERY?

Though rare, depending on vehicle and battery size, replacing an EV battery can range from:

$2,500 to $20,000

Many EV manufacturers provide a warranty, typically 8 years and 100,000 miles, covering replacement cost of new batteries.

> SOURCE: How To Geek

BATTERY AND EV PERFORMANCE

Not only are EVs energy efficient to operate, getting you from Point A to Point B while consuming less energy, but they also have exhilarating acceleration. EVs provide instant torque without having to generate RPMs to build up power. Some EVs have front and rear motors, working through the vehicle’s four wheels, which increases power and performance as well.

(more than you should be driving 😊)

WILL YOUR BATTERY LOSE CHARGE IF YOU’RE STUCK IN TRAFFIC?

Even if you’re low on charge, say 20%, EVs use very minimal energy simply just sitting there. That includes running the AC and/or any ancillary devices. They burn about 1 kWh. On a full charge, you can sit in idle all day.

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> SOURCE: Motor Biscuit

HOW LONG CAN EV BATTERIES STAY CHARGED WITHOUT BEING DRIVEN?

EVs lose charge when parked. However, the power loss is relatively minimal, which is to say, EV batteries will stay charged for a considerable length of time without being driven.

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> SOURCE: Plugin Report
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Charging Stations

If battery life and performance are the biggest concerns regarding EVs, where and how to charge an EV is certainly a close second. Most EV owners will typically charge their EV at home, at work or while running errands. For longer journeys, it takes some planning by using a charging station map to identify stops along your intended route.

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WHERE TO CHARGE YOUR EV.

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Home charging consists of 80-90% of all charging.

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Workplace charging is a great benefit for employees & usually inspires faster EV adoption among employees.

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Public charging allows people to drive EVs on longer-distance trips or to top off their battery while in town.

HOW DO I CHARGE AN ELECTRIC CAR?

It’s as simple as plugging in your phone. The most convenient places for electric car charging are at home or work. Simply connect the car to a standard outlet or a charging station. Then charging occurs while you go on with your life.

TYPES OF CHARGING STATIONS

Currently, there are three different types of charging stations that can be used to charge an EV.

LEVEL 1

120 volt

120-volt stations are commonly found at one’s home. This is the slowest charging station but also the most economical.
Charging times: 4-12 hours.

LEVEL 2

240 volt

240-volt stations are often found in homes or public spaces as well as places of business. These might be provided as a convenience to customers or pay-to-use.
Charging times: 3 hours or less for smaller batteries. 6-10 hours for larger batteries.

LEVEL 3

480 volt

480-volt stations can be found in public spaces as well as places of business. These are the fastest but also the most expensive stations to install and use. Charging times: 30 minutes to 1 hour.
Charging times: 30 minutes to 1 hour.

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HOW DO I CHARGE MY ELECTRIC CAR AT HOME?

All electric cars come with a charging cord that can be used in a regular, 120-volt outlet (Level 1). Some electric cars come with a charging cord that can be used in a 240-volt outlet (like a dryer outlet) for faster charging (Level 2). A qualified electrical contractor can evaluate your home wiring to determine the best approach for electric car charging at home or explore home charging solutions now with ChargePoint® marketplace.

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HOW DO I GET A HOME CHARGING STATION?

Many manufacturers now make Level 2 chargers with meters or timers. PSO customers can receive up to $250 rebate receive up to $250 rebate for purchasing an ENERGY STAR-certified Level 2 charger. A 240-volt plug (like a dryer outlet), can provide up to 30 miles of range per hour of charging. Work with your electrical contractor to evaluate your home’s wiring, electrical outlets and other hardware that can support the charging requirements of your new electric vehicle. We’ve partnered with ChargePoint® to offer charging solutions.

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO CHARGE AN EV AT A PUBLIC CHARGING STATION?

Refueling at public electric car charging stations can vary widely in cost. Some charging stations are available free of charge, offered as an amenity by businesses and community organizations; most electric car charging stations located in your city or along highways require fees that you will pay with a credit card or mobile app.

On average, it costs between $0.30- $0.60 kWh to charge an electric vehicle. Therefore, this means that a small car could cost about $11.50 to $23 to fully charge while a bigger or long-distance vehicle could cost between $22.50 to $45.

> SOURCE: Mach1 Roadside Services

HOW DO YOU FIND CHARGING STATIONS EASILY DURING TRAVEL?

As our state and country’s infrastructure grow to meet the demand of EVs, so does the network of charging stations popping up almost daily. Fortunately, there are maps and apps readily available to show drivers where the nearest charging station can be found. They can also be filtered by charging station connector type and level, as well as by network provider.

Click here to view map

Many businesses, government offices and institutions like libraries, schools and colleges provide electric car charging stations. Services such as  Blink,  ChargePoint,  Chargeway,  Electrify America,  PlugShare, Francis Energy, and Tesla have websites and mobile apps to help you find where to charge an electric car.

One of the main contributors to Oklahoma’s charging network is Tulsa-based company Francis Energy. They helped propel Oklahoma to the number one spot in the nation for Level 3 charging stations per capita with Level 3 chargers every 50 miles.

> SOURCE: PlugShare

IS IT HARD TO FIND CHARGING STATIONS IN RURAL AREAS?

As you could probably see in the map above, charging stations aren’t as prevalent in rural communities as they are in urban settings. However, through the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Plan, $66M will provide dedicated funds over the next five years to make EV charging more accessible across our state.

Many people like to travel with the mobile charging cable that comes with their car, which enables them to slow charge at any standard outlet.

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reliability / maintenance

With fewer moving parts and advanced production techniques, EVs are proving to have a notable track record when it comes to reliability and longevity.

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WHAT IS THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN EV?

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10 Years

BATTERY LIFE

(potential)
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ARE THEY AFFECTED BY EXTREME TEMPERATURES?

EVs are safe to operate during any type of weather. Use the same judgment you would use with any vehicle when determining if it is safe to drive during extreme events.
All cars, both gas and electric, are less efficient in cold weather. The increased energy needed to heat an electric vehicle’s cabin is what has the largest impact on battery consumption and affects the car’s overall operational range. Many EVs have heated seats and steering wheels to keep the driver and passengers comfortable more efficiently than the cabin heater, which can help maximize range in the cold. Many EV drivers do notice a temporary decrease in estimated range in the winter.

> SOURCE: BLINK

WHERE SHOULD YOU TAKE AN EV FOR SERVICE? ARE MECHANICS UP TO SPEED WITH THESE TYPES OF VEHICLES?

Manufacturer dealership service departments are great resources for servicing your EV. Their technicians will be up to speed on the latest servicing needs and techniques for your EV.

> SOURCE: CARFAX
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PSO INITIATIVES

The movement toward driving electric is revving up, and we're proud to be a part of it. We're looking at programs Public Service Company of Oklahoma may be able to offer you in the future to enhance your ownership and driving experience.

LEARN MORE
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